For the week of Aug. 17, 2014
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940): West Indian. Political activist. Born in Jamaica, Garvey was a Black Nationalist leader who founded a movement advocating self-help, racial separation, and the liberation of Africa from White colonial rule. His Universal Negro Improvement Association, established in 1914, moved in 1916 from Jamaica to New York City, where he began publishing a weekly paper, Negro World. His movement at its height claimed nearly a million followers, but its numbers declined after 1923, when Garvey was convicted on charges of mail fraud stemming from his methods of selling stock in the steamship line he had founded to link Black communities throughout the world.
Charlotte Forten Grimke (1837-1914): African American. Teacher and writer. Daughter, granddaughter, and niece of prominent abolitionists, Charlotte Forten Grimke made her own contribution to the advancement of her people through her service during the Civil War as a teacher of former slaves on the islands off Georgia and South Carolina. She wrote vivid accounts of her experience in magazine articles published at the time and in a journal published after her death.
Death of General Josei de San Martin : Argentina. Soldier and statesman. Josei de San Martin with Simon Bolivar, led the movement of Spainis South American colonies to win their freedom from Spain, formed an army in Argentina and led it over the Andes and took Santiago Chile, then he organized a Chilean navy to transport the rebel army to Lima where he proclaimed a new country and was named the leader. He retired to France.
Independence Day: Indonesia. Nationalists declared Indonesia and independent nation after the withdrawal of the Japanese in 1949. The Netherlands, which had ruled Indonesia, ceded sovereignty to an independent government on this day. Indonesia is the worldis fourth most populous country and has the worldis largest Muslim population.
Roberto Clemente (1934-1972): Puerto Rican. Baseball player. An outstanding hitter, base runner and fielder during his 18 year career with the Pittsburgh Pirates, Clemente led the National League in batting four times and had a lifetime batting four times and had a lifetime batting average of .317, with a total of 3,000 major league hits. He was voted Most Valuable Player of the National League in 1969 and Most Valuable Player of the 1971 World Series. Clemente died in a plane crash in December of 1972 while on a humanitarian mission to carry relief supplies to earthquake victims in Nicaragua.
Manual Quezon (1876-1944): Filipino. Political leader. An attorney who became majority leader of the first Philippine Assembly under U. S. rule in 1907, Quezon later served as resident commissioner in Washington D. C. In this capacity, he advocated independence for his country. As president of the Philippine Senate from 1916 to 1935, he helped to craft the 1934 laws that granted commonwealth status to the Philippines and promised full political independence in ten years. In 1935 he was elected president of the commonwealth.
Rose Hum Lee (1904-1964): Chinese American. Educator and writer. Rose Hum Lee was a sociologist who produced pioneering studies of Chinese-American communities in the United States, including the 1960 book The Chinese in the United States of America. She taught at several institutions, including Roosevelt University and Phoenix College, and was active during World War II in relief organizations that sent aid to people in China.
Constitution Day: Hungary. This day commemorates the adoption of the first Hungarian constitution in 1920.
Joyce Chen (1918-1994): Chinese American. Chef, restauranteur, and writer. After immigrating to the United States with her family in 1949, Joyce Chen developed a career from her knowledge of classic Mandarin cooking. Through her restaurant in Cambridge, Massachusetts, her Joyce Chen Cookbook, and eventually her nationally broadcast PBS program iJoyce Chan Cooksi, she popularized Mandarin cuisine in the United States, expanding Americansi knowledge and appreciation of Chinese cooking beyond the Cantonese dishes that had been the standard fare of Chinese restaurants in this country. She died on this date.
Independence Day : Ukraine. This day commemorates the Ukraineis gaining independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991.