This week in history

 July 3 in History

 Today's birthday

For the week of Jun. 28, 2015

Stokely Carmichael (1941-1998): African American. Civil rights leader. Known later in his life as Kwame Ture, Stokely Carmichael was a charismatic civil rights leader. A graduate of the Bronx High School of Science and Howard University, Carmichael became chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1966, a committee that had two years earlier sent volunteers to the South to teach, set up clinics, and register Black Southerners to vote. Carmichael originated the term iBlack Poweri in a speech in 1966 that called for a more militant approach to the civil rights movement. Becoming more militant and radicalized, Carmichael resigned from SNCC and became prime minister of the Black Panther Party in 1968. The following year Carmichael moved to Guinea, West Africa, where he spent the latter part of his life as an advocate for a unified, socialist Africa.

Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993): Civil rights leader and Supreme Court justice. As head of the legal services division of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from 1938 to 1962, Thurgood Marshall led the legal effort to advance the civil rights of all Americans, particularly those belonging to minority groups. His most famous victory was the 1954 Supreme Court decision ending racial segregation in public schools. He continued to work for civil rights and equal opportunity as a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals, second circuit (1962-1965), Solicitor General of the United States (1965-1967), and finally as the first African American associate justice of the Supreme Court, where he served from 1967 to 1991.

McCarran-Walter Act (1952): United States. This U.S. immigration act, passed during the Korean War over President Trumanis veto, generally reaffirmed earlier, restrictive immigration policies but removed the ban against naturalization of Asian and Pacific immigrants. This provision was greeted with jubilation by Japanese-born residents of the United States, who had been barred under previous laws from seeking citizenship. Another provision of the law, however, empowered the Attorney General to deport immigrants for Communist sympathies even if they had become citizens. This provision led to wide-spread investigations and deportations of Chinese residents.

Canada Day: Canada. Known as Dominion Day until 1982, this day celebrates the confederation of upper and lower Canada into the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Observed on Monday, July 2.

Independence Day: Algeria. Ruled by the Ottoman Turks since the mid-sixteenth century and populated mainly by Arabs who introduced Islam as the countryis predominant religion, Algeria became a colony of France in 1848. A war of independence from France began in 1954, and Algeria became independent in 1962.

Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882): Italian. Military leader. Garibaldi led the military forces of the revolutionary movement for the unification and independence of Italy from 1884 to 1867. A national hero, Garibaldi is considered one of the great guerrilla generals of modern times.

Edmonia Lewis (1845-unknown date, after 1911): African American and American Indian (Ojibway ). Sculptor. Lewis largely self-taught, first came to public attention in 1864 with a medallion of the head of John Brown and a portrait bust of the late Civil War hero Robert Gould Shaw. Sale of copies of the Shaw bust earned her enough to travel to Rome, where she established a studio and pursued a successful career, which peaked in the late 60s and early 70s. Much of her work is lost today, but it is known to have included a number of works depicting African American and Indians themes.

Independence Day: United States. This commemorates the day in 1776 that delegates of the Thirteen Colonies signed the Declaration of Independence announcing their separation from Great Britain and the establishment of the United States of America.

Philippine- American Friendship Day: Philippines. This celebrates the day in 1946 that the United States granted independence to the Philippines after ruling it since 1905.

Independence Day: Venezuela. first colonized by Spain in the fifteenth century, Venezuela began a war of independence led by Francisco de Miranda and Simon Bolivar that lasted from 1810 to 1821. It is on this day in 1811 that Venezuela declared its independence from Spain. This day is celebrated in Venezuela as a national holiday.