This week in history
For the week of Mar. 2, 2014
Granting of citizenship to Puerto Ricans (1917): United States. On this date the United States Congress passed the Jones Act, which conferred U.S. citizenship on Puerto Ricans and gave them the right to elect representatives to both houses of the territorial legislature. The act was opposed by some of the most prominent Puerto Rican leaders because they felt it was a poor substitute for full independence.
Alexander Crummell (1819-1898): African American. Minister, missionary, and writer. After his ordination as an Episcopal minister, Crummell traveled to England to raise funds to support his work among African Americans. He decided instead to enroll at Cambridge University, where he took a degree. From 1853 to 1873 he worked as a missionary and teacher of theology in Monrovia, Liberia. He then returned to the United States and served as rector of a church in Washington D.C. Crummellis published works include collections of sermons and essays on contemporary topics of concern to African Americans.
Doll Festival (Hina Matsuri): Japan. This is one of the major social festivals in traditional Japan. There is much visiting among family members and friends, and visitors bring gifts of dolls. The traditional holiday foods are red-bean-flavored rice, rice dumplings wrapped in cherry leaves, and a special sweet cake.
Indian Appropriations Act (1871): United States. This act declared that no American Indian tribe was to be recognized as a nation empowered to make treaties with the U.S. government. It asserted the right of the federal government to manage American Indian affairs without tribal consent.
National Day: Morocco. In 1915 Morocco became independent from France and Spain. The king is especially honored on this day. The holiday feast traditionally includes mechoiu (whole roasted lamb) and pastilla (salted pie filled with lamb, eggs, pigeon, chicken, vegetables, and spices.)
Garrett Morgan (1877 n 1963): African American. Inventor, Morgan patented two widely known inventions, the gas mask (1914) and the three-light traffic signal system (1923).
Kazimierz (Casimir) Pulaski (1748 n 1779): Polish. Soldier. An aristocrat and patriot, Pulaski left Poland after participating in a failed uprising protesting the increasing dominance of foreign powers in Polish affairs. He then offered his services to the American Revolution. He fought in a number of engagements before being mortally wounded at the siege of Savannah, Georgia.
Eid al-Adha (The Feast of Sacrifice): Islam. *This religious observance commemorates the story of Abraham and Ishmail as told in the Qurian. God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his only son as a proof of his faith. Before Abraham completed the sacrifice, God stopped him and provided a ram for sacrifice in place of Ishmail. After a solemn service at the mosque, worshippers visit cemeteries to pay tribute to the dead. When they return home, a festive meal is eaten. This is also the time when many Muslims observe one of the five Pillars of Islam, which requires those who can to make a pilgrimage once in their lifetime to Meccais Grand Mosque in Saudi Arabia, Islamis holiest site. *
Independence Day: Ghana. On this date in 1957, the British territories of the Gold Coast and Togoland became the independent nation of Ghana.
Holi: Hindu. This two-day holiday celebrates the coming of spring throughout India. Large *bonfires are lit, and coconuts and other foods are thrown into the fire. Games and folk dancing take place as well as the throwing of colored powder and water on friends. *
International Womenis Day. The movement to create an International Womenis Day began as part of the socialist movement for greater womenis rights, particularly the right to vote. first designated as the last Sunday in February by the Conference of Socialist Women in Copenhagen, Denmark, in l910, it was later changed to be uniformly celebrated on March 8 to honor womenis role in the Russian Revolution. With the resurgence of feminism in the late 1960s, International Womenis Day gained renewed interest as a day to celebrate womenis lives and work.
Raul Julia (1940-1994): Puerto Rican. Actor. One of the most versatile and successful actors of his generation, Julia won acclaim in dramatic and musical roles in the New York theater and for a variety of performances in films and television. His stage roles ranged from Shakespeareis Othello and Prospero to Mack the Knife in the Three Penny Opera and Don Quixote in Man of La Mancha. His best known film roles include that of Gomez, the comically macabre father in The Adams Family, and Valentin, the courageous political prisoner in the drama Kiss of the Spider Women.