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 August 16 in History

 Today's birthday

For the week of Aug. 13, 2017

Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941): African American. Scientist. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, and a graduate of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, Just became a zoologist with an international reputation for his research in marine biology. He was a Professor of Zoology at Howard University from 1912 to 1929 and directed the physiology department at its medical school. Hr wrote Biology of the Cell Surface and founded Omega Psi Phi, one of the countryis largest Black fraternities. In February 1996, he was honored with a United States Postal Service commemorative stamp as part of the Black Heritage Stamp series.

Independence Day: India. This marks the day in 1947 that India became a self-governing country within the British Commonwealth. This was one of the critical steps that led to full independence in 1950.

Liberation Day : Korea. In North Korea, this commemorates the surrender of Japan in 1945, ending World War II and the Japanese occupation of Korea. In South Korea, it marks both the Japanese surrender and the creation in 1948 of an *Independent South Korean government. *

Feast of the Assumption: Roman Catholic. This celebrates the belief by Roman Catholics in Maryis assumption to heaven.

Marcus Garvey (1887-1940): West Indian. Political activist. Born in Jamaica, Garvey was a Black Nationalist leader who founded a movement advocating self-help, racial separation, and the liberation of Africa from White colonial rule. His Universal Negro Improvement Association, established in 1914, moved in 1916 from Jamaica to New York City, where he began publishing a weekly paper, Negro World. His movement at its height claimed nearly a million followers, but its numbers declined after 1923, when Garvey was convicted on charges of mail fraud stemming from his methods of selling stock in the steamship line he had founded to link Black communities throughout the world.

Charlotte Forten Grimke (1837-1914): African American. Teacher and writer. Daughter, granddaughter, and niece of prominent abolitionists, Charlotte Forten Grimke made her own contribution to the advancement of her people through her service during the Civil War as a teacher of former slaves on the islands off Georgia and South Carolina. She wrote vivid accounts of her experience in magazine articles published at the time and in a journal published after her death.

Death of General Josei de San Martin : Argentina. Soldier and statesman. Josei de San Martin with Simon Bolivar, led the movement of Spainis South American colonies to win their freedom from Spain, formed an army in Argentina and led it over the Andes and took Santiago Chile, then he organized a Chilean navy to transport the rebel army to Lima where he proclaimed a new country and was named the leader. He retired to France.

Independence Day: Indonesia. Nationalists declared Indonesia and independent nation after the withdrawal of the Japanese in 1949. The Netherlands, which had ruled Indonesia, ceded sovereignty to an independent government on this day. Indonesia is the worldis fourth most populous country and has the worldis largest Muslim population.

Roberto Clemente (1934-1972): Puerto Rican. Baseball player. An outstanding hitter, base runner and fielder during his 18 year career with the Pittsburgh Pirates, Clemente led the National League in batting four times and had a lifetime batting four times and had a lifetime batting average of .317, with a total of 3,000 major league hits. He was voted Most Valuable Player of the National League in 1969 and Most Valuable Player of the 1971 World Series. Clemente died in a plane crash in December of 1972 while on a humanitarian mission to carry relief supplies to earthquake victims in Nicaragua.

Manual Quezon (1876-1944): Filipino. Political leader. An attorney who became majority leader of the first Philippine Assembly under U. S. rule in 1907, Quezon later served as resident commissioner in Washington D. C. In this capacity, he advocated independence for his country. As president of the Philippine Senate from 1916 to 1935, he helped to craft the 1934 laws that granted commonwealth status to the Philippines and promised full political independence in ten years. In 1935 he was elected president of the commonwealth.

Rose Hum Lee (1904-1964): Chinese American. Educator and writer. Rose Hum Lee was a sociologist who produced pioneering studies of Chinese-American communities in the United States, including the 1960 book The Chinese in the United States of America. She taught at several institutions, including Roosevelt University and Phoenix College, and was active during World War II in relief organizations that sent aid to people in China.

Constitution Day: Hungary. This day commemorates the adoption of the first Hungarian constitution in 1920.