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This week in history

 June 13 in History

This Day in History provided by The Free Dictionary

 Today's birthday

Today's Birthday provided by The Free Dictionary

For the week of Jun. 13, 2021

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Luis Alvarez (1911-1988): Mexican American. Physicist. Alvarezis greatest *Contribution to science was his research on subatomic particles, for which he won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968. During World War II he created a ground-controlled radar system for aircraft landings, and later collaborated in the building of the atomic bomb. In 1970 he and his son Walter proposed the theory that the extinction of the dinosaurs had been caused by the collision of a comet of asteroid with the earth. *

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Mary Antin (1881-1949): Jewish Russian American. Writer Coming to the United States at the age of 13 with her family, Mary Antin flourished in her new country, going from first to fifth grade in the Boston public schools in half a year. She soon showed herself to be a gifted writer, published her first poem at 15 and her first book, a narrative of her journey from Russia to the United States, at age 18. She is best known for her autobiographical work iThe Promised Land,i a classic account to immigration and assimilation.

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Carlos Chavez (1899-1978): Mexican. Composer, conductor, and educator. In The course of his long career, Chavez left his mark on nearly every aspect of musical life in Mexicois first symphony orchestra and conducted it for 20 years, introduced modern European music to Mexican audiences, directed the National Conservatory, and overhauled the system of music education in Mexican schools as head of the department of fine arts in the ministry of education. His field research into Mexican folk music enriched his own compositions, which are notable for their complex rhythmic patterns , simple melodic lines and strong percussive effects.

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James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938): African American. Writer, diplomat, educator, and civil rights leader. Johnsonis writings include songs (among them iLift Every Voice and Sing,i that became to be known as the iThe Negro National Anthem.i Poetry, fiction, an autobiography, and critical and historical *Works on African American culture. He also compiled anthologies of African American poems and spirituals. A former high school principal, journalist, attorney and diplomatic representative in Venezuela and Nicaragua, he served the NAACP from 1916 to 1930 as field secretary and then executive secretary, greatly expanding the organizationis membership and influence spent the remainder of his life in university teaching. *

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Susan Flesche Picotte (1865-1915): American Indian (Omaha). Physician. Youngest daughter of Chief Joseph LaFlesche (Iron Eye) and his wife Mary (Iron Woman). After her education in the East, Picotte returned to the reservation as a doctor and spent four years traveling among the 1.300 widely scattered Omahas, caring for the sick and hurt and educating them about health and sanitation. Widowed in 1905 and with two sons, she moved in 1906 to the new town of Walthill on the reservation, where she spent her life practicing medicine, establishing a hospital, and serving her community as a leader in church and civic activities.

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Evacuation Day: Egypt. This marks the proclamation of the Egyptian republic after a military coup deposed King Farouk in 1952.

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Juneteenth: African American. This Commemorates the emancipation of all salves in Texas by the Union general Gordon Grange.