September 19 in History

This Day in History provided by The Free Dictionary

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For the week of Sep. 15, 2019

Jan E. Matzelinger (1852-1889) : African American. Inventor. Matzeliger produced machines that revolutionized the shoe industry. By using the machine he patented in 1883, cobblers could make 1,000 pairs of shoes in one day.

Independence Day : Central American nations. This commemorates the declaration of independence from Spain of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua in 1821.

Respect for aged Day (Keiro No Hi) Japan. This is one of twelve public holidays in Japan and a day for paying respect to the aged and celebrating their longevity.

Independence Day (El Dia de Independencia) : Mexico. On September 16,1980, in the small town of Dolores, in the province of Guanajuato in Mexico, a handful of people were summoned by a parish priest to take up arms against the Spanish colonial government. This began the fight for independence that ended 350 years of Spanish rule. To this day, the church bell that was used to call people to revolt hangs in the National Palace in Mexico City and is rung on the eve of September 16 by the President of the Republic.

Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000): African America. Painter. Jacob Lawrence was one of Americais leading modern figurative painters whose work chronicled the African American experience. His best-known work is The Migration of the American Negro, depicting the mass Migration of Southern Black to the North in search of work following World War I.

Independence Day: Chile. This holiday commemorates Chileis gaining independence from Spain in 1818.

Sarah (Sadie) Delaney (1889- 1999) : African American. Educator and writer. Born to slaves in Georgia, Delaney attended and taught school both in the South and in New York City. The first Black woman to receive a masteris degree from the Columbia School of Education, she also became the first Black woman to teach home economics to whites in New York City schools. With her sister, Dr. A. Elizabeth Delaney, a dentist, she gained fame in 1993 after the publication of their memoir, i Having Our Say: The Delaney Sisteris first 100 Years.i Now a part of the curriculum in many high schools and collages, the memoir was on the New York Times hard cover best-seller list for 28 weeks and on the paperback list for 77 weeks. The memoir was adapted into a Broadway play that was nominated for three Tony awards. Delaney died in 1999 at 109 years of age.

Dalip Singh Saund (1899-1973): Indian American. Activist and legislator. Born in a village in India, Saund came to the United States in 1920after earning his college degree. As a founding member and early president of the Indian Association of America, he campaigned for changes in the immigration laws to permit East Indians to become naturalized citizens. These efforts succeeded, and he became a U. S. citizen in 1949. In 1956 he became the first Indian American to win election to the U.S. Congress. He served three terms, representing his California district in Washington D.C., until 1962.

Independence Day: Armenia. This celebrates Armeniais reestablishment as a free republic after the collapse of the Soviet Union. A referendum was held on this day 1999 declaring Armenia and independent Republic; independence was declared on September 23.