August 13 in History

This Day in History provided by The Free Dictionary

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For the week of Aug. 7, 2022

Ira Aldridge (1805-1867) : African American. Actor. The son of a freed slave, Aldridge grew up in New York and began his theatrical career when he met the great English actor Edmund Kean, who was touring America. Accompanying Kean back to Britain, Aldridge studied at the University of Glasgow and made his acting debut as Othello in London in 1827. Although he returned to the United States for a brief tour in 1830-1831, he made his career in Europe, touring the continent frequently and winning wide acclaim. He died on this date.

Battle of Boyaca : Colombia . This holiday commemorates the decisive battle of 1819 led by Simon Bolivar in Columbiais war of independence from Spain.

Emiliano Zapata 1877-1919) :Mexican. Revolutionary leader. A poor farmer in the southern state of Morelos, Zapata became a local leader and spokesman for the rights of villagers. After the outbreak of revolution in 1910, he led the insurgent forces in the South. Incorruptible and unswervingly devoted to democratic ideals and economic justice for the poor, Zapata proposed the Plan of Ayala, a blueprint for redistributing land to Indians and peasants. His conflict with the leadership of the revolutionary government led to his entrapment and murder by government soldiers on this date in 1919.

National Day: Singapore. Populated by Indians, Chinese, and Malays, Singapore became independent from Malaysia in 1965.

Pueblo Revolt (1680): American Indian. On this date the Pueblo peoples of the colony of New Mexico rose in revolt against the Spanish Friars, soldiers, as colonists who had seized their lands, enslaved them, and forced them to renounce their ancestral gods. Inspired by a medicine man named Popei, Pueblo leaders planned a coordinated uprising, which began on this day with simultaneous attacks on many Spanish settlements and came to an end on August 21, when the governor and his remaining forces abandoned Santa Fe and began a retreat south. The victorious Indians restored their shrines and resumed practicing their religion. In the next decade drought, hunger, and disease brought renewed hardships and fueled factional disputes among the Pueblos and the Spanish re-conquered the territory by 1692.

Accession of King Hussein: Jordan. This marks the day in 1952 that Ibn Talal Hussein became King of Jordan at the age of 17. He ruled from 1952 until his death in 1999.

Metacomet (Philip) (c.1639-1676): American Indian (Wampanoag). Political and military leader. Metacomet became leader of his people in 1662.The expansion of European settlements into Indian lands and the persistent efforts of the settlers to subjugate the Indians led to increasing tensions. After fighting broke out in June of 1675, the conflict spread to most of New England. Metacomet led his own people, allied with the neighboring Narragansetts and Nipmucks, in the 14 months of bloody conflict that have come to be known as iKing Philipis War.i More than 1,000 colonists were killed, crops and settlements were destroyed on both sides, and uncounted Indians were killed or sold into slavery. Betrayed by an informer, his wife and child captured and enslaved, Metacomet was hunted down and killed on this date in 1676.

Janmashtami (Birth of Lord Krishna): Hindu. This is one of the great Hindu night festivals. Worshippers fast and go to temples to see dance dramas enacting scenes from the life of Lord Krishna, one of the incarnations of Vishnu and one of the most popular deities in Hinduism.

Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941): African American. Scientist. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, and a graduate of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, Just became a zoologist with an international reputation for his research in marine biology. He was a Professor of Zoology at Howard University from 1912 to 1929 and directed the physiology department at its medical school. Hr wrote Biology of the Cell Surface and founded Omega Psi Phi, one of the countryis largest Black fraternities. In February 1996, he was honored with a United States Postal Service commemorative stamp as part of the Black Heritage Stamp series.