April 9 in History


 Today's birthday

For the week of Apr. 5, 2020

05
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) :African American. Educator. Organizer and first director of the Normal and Industrial Institute for Negroes at Tuskegee, Alabama (later Tuskegee Institute), Washington became the nationis foremost advocate of education for African Americans. His cautious and conciliatory approach to race relations was criticized by W.E.B. DuBois and other leaders who urged more active efforts to achieve civil and political rights for Black Americans.

05
Respect for Ancestors Day (Chiing-ming): China This is also called Cold Food Day. It is the only traditional Chinese holiday celebrated according to the solar calendar. This is a day for paying homage to oneis ancestors by visiting graves and leaving flowers and food.

06
Chakri Day: Thailand. This holiday commemorates the founding of the president dynasty by King Rama I (1782-1809).

07
Francois Dominique Toussaint-Louverture (c.1743-1803): Haitian. Military and political leader. Born a slave on the island of Saint-Domingue, a French colony (later called Haiti), Toussaint-Louverture became the leader of his countryis independence movement. As a Guerrilla leader of insurgent slaves, Toussaint-Louverture sided with the French Republic in 1793 when other rebel leaders supported Spainis war against France. Appointed lieutenant governor of the colony, he succeeded in driving out the Spanish and the British. In 1801, defying Napoleonis orders, he freed the slaves on the island and established in independent government with himself at its head. After an invasion by French troops, he was removed from office, then arrested and imprisoned in Switzerland, where he died in captivity on this date in 1803.

07
Ramon Emeterio Betances (1827-1898) : Puerto Rican. Physician, writer, and revolutionary leader. Betances studied medicine in Paris and lived there most *of his life, working from exile for the cause of slavery while writing fiction, journalism, and translations from Latin. His iTen Commandments of Free Men,i *issued on November 4, 1867, while he was living on the island of St. Thomas, sets forth the ideals of political and social justice to which he dedicated his life.

08
Dennis Chavez (1888-1962): Mexican American. Legislator. A Democrat from New Mexico, Chavez served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1931 to 1935, when he was appointed to a vacant seat in the U.S. Senate. Elected in his own right in 1936, he won reelection four times, serving until his death. During his career he championed bills to benefit American Indians and Puerto Ricans, and as a founder and later member of the federal Fair Employment Practices Commission, worked to outlaw racial and religious discrimination in the workplace.

08
Buddhais Birth (c. 53-483 B.C.E.): Buddhist. Siddhartha Gautama, who became known as Buddha, or ienlightened one,i was an Indian prince who left his family at the age of 29 to seek the truth of life. After years of wandering, meditation, and self-denial, he attained the enlightenment he sought at a place now called Buddha Gaya or Bodh Gaya. The religion he founded spread throughout central and Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and Korea, and has also attracted followers in the West. It is celebrated on this day in the Mahayana Buddhist tradition based on the Japanese Buddhist calendar.

08
Yom Hashoah (Holocaust Memorial Day): Jewish. This day has been designated by Israelis Knesset, of Parliament, as a memorial to the 6 million Jews killed by the Nazis in their program of mass extermination of all Jews in Germany and the countries under German occupation. This program, building on long-standing anti-Semitism, began with arrests and imprisonment of Jews in the early 1930is and extended in the 1940is to forcing Jews into slave labor camps and extermination in death camps such as Treblinka, Sobibor, and Auschwitz.

09
Chandler Hovey, Jr. (?-1998) American. Lawyer and sailor. A lawyer until his retirement from a New York investment banking firm. Hovey and his family had a long association with sailboat competition, particularly the Americais Cup. This involvement continued even after Hovey began to suffer from multiple sclerosis in 1947. He used crutches during sailing trails competition, and in 1995 the Independence Cup, the national trophy for the disabled, was named in his honor. This is the date of his death.

09
Paul Robeson (1898-1976): African American. Singer and actor. A bass-baritone, Robeson won international acclaim for concert performances of classical works, spirituals, and folk songs, and for stage performances, particularly in the title role of Shakespeareis Othello.

09
Valor Day: Philippines. This marks the anniversary of the forced marched to a prison camp of 70,000 Americans and Filipinos captured in Bataan in 1942 by the Japanese. Only 54,000 prisoners survived the march; 7,000-10,000 died and the rest escaped into the jungle.